Free Textbook for my Introductory Statistics Class December 9, 2013Posted by cherylcan in Uncategorized.
I have been working with a great team on an Introductory Statistics textbook that is now available for free through OpenStax College. It offers students free textbooks that are peer-reviewed texts written by professional content developers. I am really excited to try this with my next class.
Check out Introductory Statistics
Research time vs. blogging time July 10, 2013Posted by cherylcan in Uncategorized.
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As all can see by my posts, I am not getting the balance of my research time and writing time quite right. I am amazed by my clients. You are all doing such exciting things. It is such a great way for me to work, being involved in diverse projects and doing research on so many things. I love the work. However, I have not been balancing out my writing time. I am not getting time to work on my own books, or on blogging about research. Today, I am again supposed to be doing research but felt that I must take a couple of minutes to talk about research.
I had an opportunity to attend a public lecture this week, which reminded me that research is not just about doing the work. It is about getting out there and talking about what you have found, why it is interesting, and having spirited debates with colleagues. The best researchers are so good at getting up and explaining the details of their work to the public without talking down to them. It made me excited to be a researcher, and reminded me that one of the things I am really good at is taking complex information and disseminating it. I need hone this skill, so for my next series of posts I am going to get out more to see what is going on locally, nationally, and internationally, and then share it with all of you.
Talk to you again soon.
Getting kids excited about research April 17, 2013Posted by cherylcan in Teaching.
Tags: astronaut, Chris Hadfield, CSA, experiments, space.
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Chris Hadfield, Canadian Space Agency (CSA) astronaut, is doing it right when it comes to getting us all excited about space. I follow him on twitter, where he updates us on what is going on. I love that we can follow what he is doing, and that he takes time out from his research and other work to speak with school children When a school from PEI had their turn, it was on the news here for days. Even the kids that were not part of that school, my own included, were talking about space exploration. Now he has taken it a step further by performing a simple science experiment designed by grade 10 students, Kendra Lemke and Meredith Faulkner. It is an amazing way to get people excited about experiments.
My Favourite Personal Research – February Trip South March 7, 2013Posted by cherylcan in Uncategorized.
Tags: Online research, Travel
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February flew by, but better late then never here is what I was wrapped up in researching. My husband and I have taken a southern vacation ten times in the last eleven years. Usually we go in February so I spend the months prior searching for a great vacation spot.
My first discussion determined the plan (what we need in a spot), and of course the budget. Once you determine these two factors, you can cut a number of options. For example, this year Tim wanted to go back to Jamaica, but we needed to keep the total cost after taxes near the $3,000 mark. However, we knew we wanted a nice place but were not worried about being near any particular spot. The rest of the crew travelling with us had some stipulations too.
Lists (must haves and would be nice) in hand, I started to look for spots. There were not too many within budget and meeting requirements. First timers may become discouraged at this point, but I know that the prices generally drop a bit after Christmas. You need patience. There is that balance of meeting budget requirements and having the relief of being booked.
When you find an option, then we go to the review sites to see what others think. After this many years, I have learned to read the reviews with critical eye by searching for general themes rather than relying on one or two reports. It is also helpful to check nationality of reviewer. I find that different expectations shine through in reviews. Years ago you had to dig a bit more to get beyond promotional materials. We started with Debbie’s Dominican Travel, which has now expanded to Debbie’s Caribbean Resort Reviews. However, now the travel sites have the reviews linked right on their websites. I tend to still go to a second site to double check themes of a resort. (Again, checking my list to ensure the “must haves” are up to snuff).
Finally at some point you have to just “roll the dice” by booking. It is an educated guess. I determine the probability that the trip price will drop, and compare it to the availability of spaces leaving from your airport. It usually comes down for me to a great price at a great spot and the need to get on to some other work.
This year we booked a Sunquest trip, flying with WestJet to the Gran Bahia Principe Runaway Bay. It was amazing. We even took the Cool Runnings tour to Dunn’s River Falls on my friend Kelly’s 40th Birthday. The hotel even let us book a birthday cake with supper that night. Great relaxation on the beach, and fun at night.
Now that I am home, I am screening spots for next year.
Supercritical Fluid Extraction — Commercial Use January 16, 2013Posted by cherylcan in Things I have looked into.
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Thanks to the PEI BioAlliance. I got to review a process from my past, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE). SFE uses temperature and pressure to move a fluid beyond its “critical point”, thus creating a supercritical fluid. Supercritical fluids are somewhere between a fluid and a gas which allows for specificity in separation and increased yields when extracted. The added benefit is instead of using toxic solvents, we generally use CO2, so it is a greener process.
My training, by the manufacturer, consisted of extracting oils from a potato chip. Wow… I did not eat chips for a long time after that. The lab was using SFE to assist in the determination of the causes of sediment toxicity. My work planned to use aqueous sample extraction onto C18 Empore disks and subsequent elution with supercritical CO2 to isolate and concentrate analytes of interest. I won’t get into the scientific details of what we were doing. Suffice to say that SFE was one of my fav methods.
Commercially SFE is used to make decaf coffee, refine hops for beer, and isolate natural compounds. Tuesday, January 15, 2013, Jerry King, from University of Arkansas, came to PEI to make a presentation entitled “Trends and Key Aspects in Commercializing (Super) Critical Fluid Extraction & Technology”. His university bio states that his research is to develop environmentally-benign methodology using compressed carbon dioxide and/or water as media for conducting extractions and reactions of natural/agricultural products, CO2 – based cleaning technology, as well as application to materials modification. What I really loved about him was that he took the process and made it accessible to the company and government reps, as well as the scientists in the audience. It was so nice to see all the different products that use SFE today. There are so many PEI applications of this technology.
CAW – What does it mean to me? January 5, 2013Posted by cherylcan in Things I have looked into.
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After my last rant, I wanted to do something a bit lighter for my first post of 2013. I chose to do a basic web search of something that I have been meaning to research for awhile now – the crow. My initials spell “CAW”, so I always thought that it might mean something to me. I was slow about doing the research on it because I did not want it all to be negative . How excited was I to find that the crow has been deemed a negative omen only relatively recently and mainly in Europe (1). In many nomadic cultures (i.e. cultures of hunters and fishers) the crow has positive meaning (1). Since I come from a fishing community, I have decided that the crow, and its “CAW” will have positive meaning for me.
Crows are highly intelligent and adaptable omnivores, that can be found worldwide (2). They are members of the Corvidae family, which also includes ravens, magpies and bluejays (2, 3). There are examples where crows were taught to communicate and to count (2), as they are natural mimics and intelligent. Very social creatures with close-knit families, crows live and roost in large groups (3). A large group of crows is called “a murder of crows”. They have many different calls. Their sentinels warn of danger (2), making them loud neighbours in cities and towns. Study has noted that they will answer the distress calls of other crows even if they are not related (3).
The crow will sit up on the telephone wires and just watch what is going on. They serve as reminds to be aware of our surroundings and to always keep our eyes open for trouble. The deeply spiritual Native American Indians felt that the crow symbolized wisdom (4) and was an omen of transformation (2). Although, some of their stories also implicate the crow as a trickster. Many cultures consider the crow to be keeper of law and an omen of change (2, 5). In North America and for the Mayas, the crow is the symbol of the supreme god, when his wings are flapped the wind, thunder and lightening are created (1). In the bible, the crow brings bread to man alone in the desert (1). Crows are a good omen, bringing food and divine messages in China and Japan (1).
That quick look at the history and lore of the crow has shown me that having “CAW” as my initials is most likely good. If I was to go a step further, I am a watcher, who is able to communicate well, and willing to bring change and wisdom to my surroundings.
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I always thought critical thinking was innate, because it was for me. Whenever, you are analyzing something new first you review their definitions, whether explicitly stated or inferred. Next, determine their sources or their expertise depending on the approach. Finally, make a decision on where you sit with their views. Teaching Introduction to Psychology has demonstrated over and over that most people do not think this way naturally. This fall I was stymied yet again. I have waited a couple of months to write about it hoping to gain perspective. (Yes this rant is tempered by time.)
This term along with a new textbook, the teaching team I work with developed a wonderful little exercise where students first learn about article summary, and plagiarism. Then they must summarize an article, and finally respond to another student. Simple first step in critical thinking. Take someone’s ideas and reflect on them. Next step respond to someone’s reflection. Simple and elegant assignment. I must admit before I begin to rant that some students did this assignment wonderfully and are amazing critical thinkers.
My first problem was the technology. We were not as familiar as we could have been, so there were many issues with the background review assignment. Although I did discuss issues in class, sometimes I felt like they were not listening. Also, the assigned readings mixed various citation methodologies. In Psychology, we use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style. So I posted links for them to review the proper style.
The first night I went to mark the assignment I was floored to see that most students did not use APA to cite their sources. Some even thought it was fine to write an entire summary without ever citing anything. I was shocked. I guess they completely missed the boat on everything: my first class lecture on plagiarism and the academic consequences, the preparation assignment (14 exercises), and my links!
We had a long discussion about the writing assignment. We cannot operate in a vacuum. In our world we are bombarded by information. You need to know what is yours and who you are drawing on for your work. It is a pet peeve of mine when people do not take the time to acknowledge their sources.
The next assignment required that students respond I noted that opinion pieces are strengthened when you use references. You can define terms, and discuss expert opinions on whatever topic you are giving your opinion about. I did find that once they knew how to do it, most of my students were able to give an earnest but critical response.
Remember that although we casually share clips of content via social media, it does not apply in an academic context. Academic work always builds on the work of others, it is important to share the underlying facts to demonstrate how we reached our conclusions.
Water Research Rant November 2, 2012Posted by cherylcan in Critical thinking.
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I spent lots of time and energy working with a team of researchers focused on determining what happens to fish populations when our water supply is polluted. As such, water quality research is near and dear to me. These individuals are hardworking and focused on quality work. It is good to know that someone has noticed some the amazing work that has been done in Canada! .
Critical Thinking July 20, 2012Posted by cherylcan in Critical thinking.
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We are bombarded by information. How you use that information is up to you, but determining what is credible just involves taking a moment to think about it. Who is the source? Do they know about the topic being discussed? Is there a reason that they may want you to think that way? Are there other points of view? What data do they use to back up what they are saying?
Critical thinking is one of the first skills that university students (all of us actually) must learn. As we move from focusing on data, facts, and examples, to assessing underlying assumptions, potential bias, flaws in reasoning, and various points of view. It is imperative that individuals reflect on how they came to a belief and what has influenced that decision. Looking at a situation from all angles, or just being aware that there are many sides to an issue is a great first step.
Good critical analysis involves accurate precise description, clarity, sound evidence, depth, breath, fairness, and consistency. It is imperative that everyone involved knows what you are talking about, so clear definitions are key. Once the issue has been clearly defined a logical approach is used, so that our feelings and experiences do not bias our thinking. That means you have to be honest about how your bias or perspective may influence your behaviour, then you do the same for all other sources. Patience is required to be comprehensive and precise in analysis of all information available. It takes time to look at all sides and determine what is relevant and credible.
The biggest thing I see is that you have to be prepared to be wrong from time to time. Good critical thinkers (and researchers) care about doing their work accurately and honestly. Sometimes that honesty is hard. You may follow one path of reasoning only to find accurate credible data that disputes it or completely invalidates what you have done. It takes guts to say, now we have to modify where we are going based on this new piece of information. Critical thinkers constantly reflect on choices, and must re-evaluate with each new piece of data they receive.
Inferential Statistics June 15, 2012Posted by cherylcan in inferential, statistics.
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My friends tell me that I “go underground” when I teach. I am inaccessible to them, as my students take all of my extra energy. It is so true, I have been inaccessible here as well, and I am so sorry I neglected you as I helped them. This week we discussed inferential statistics and choosing a statistical tests yet again. I will go over inferential statistics by reviewing the steps of hypothesis testing in detail. This weekend I will upload a sample problem.
Once you get a picture of the data, generally you want to make inferences (evidence based guesses) about the population you are interested in. Statistics is all about educated guesswork. We do not actually prove anything, however, we disprove null hypotheses and provisionally accept alternate hypotheses. The process of hypothesis testing involves many steps, but for simplicity I teach 4 steps:
- State the null and alternate hypothesis
- Determine your test and the critical value associated with it (I suggest you draw pictures to clarify).
- Calculate the appropriate test statistic.
- Make a decision.
Stating both the hypotheses will cover all possible outcomes of a research study. The alternate hypothesis states that the manipulation of the independent variable had an effect on the dependent variable. The null hypothesis states that there was no difference (no change). The key in mathematics is that it is much simpler to disprove than prove something. So, we state what we think will happen (the alternate hypothesis or HA). Then state the opposite (the null hypothesis or H0). We attempt to disprove the null hypothesis so we can provisionally accept the alternate hypothesis.
There are a number of issues that must be taken into account when choosing the statistical test to use. I tell my students to write down everything they know first. The key two issues to note are:
- What kind of data did you collect? and
- What is your goal?
Generally, there are two kinds of statistical tests parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests assume that data come from a normal distribution. Commonly used parametric tests include t-tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Nonparametric tests do not make assumptions about the sampling distribution. You must also note if it is a directional or non-directional question that is being asked. In a directional question, the hypothesis states there is a difference in one direction e.g. students do better on a test after the intervention. A non-directional test just states that there is a difference. Once the test has been chosen, you must use the table associated with the test to determine the critical value. In other words, we must decide how big of a difference is needed before we think it is significant. If the sample mean is close to the population mean, then the result is more likely to have occurred by chance. This means that we cannot reject the null hypothesis. The alpha level or level of significance (also known as the “p” value) is the probability value that is used to define the very unlikely sample outcomes if H0 is true. The critical region is composed of the extreme sample values that are unlikely to be obtained if the null hypothesis (H0) is true.The boundaries for the critical region are determined by the alpha level.If the sample data fall in the critical region the null hypothesis is rejected. (Drawing a picture allows you to see the critical value on a graph of the distribution.)
Calculation of the appropriate test statistic requires that you use the appropriate formula to calculate or use a statistical package to analyze your data using the test you have chosen above. When you get the value for your test statistic, it is compared to the critical value.
Two decisions are possible:
- Reject the null hypothesis; or
- Fail to reject the null hypothesis.
Rejection of the null hypothesis means that the score your calculated falls within the critical region. You can provisionally accept the alternate hypothesis. This means that a difference was seen (there was an effect) across the levels of the independent variable that is not likely due to chance. However, if your calculated test statistic does not fall in the critical region, then you fail to reject the null hypothesis. Your results are not significant.